16th century Second half – 17th c. Panemunys had a parish, a town and a private fortified manor, then defended fortifications, which were used in 1625. during the Swedish attacks. Just as in August-September of that year Panemun was mentioned in the battles of the Swedes and Hetman Christopher Radvila, Panemun was burned down in the same year. However, in the Augustian chronicle, the Panemunis manor is also mentioned during the Northern War (1700-1721). His crew then consisted of “80 unmarried boys’ cavalry and men called in a hurry, and another 20 were kept in Pilkalnis as a platoon of followers belonging to Panemunis Castle.” Hence, after 1625. the fortifications of the manor were restored.
Today, few of Panemun fortifications remain. First of all, it is a hill rising 11 m above the river, the top of which is a quadrangle surrounded by an embankment. Its edges are 56-60 m long. The lowest is the eastern outer slope of the embankment (about 4.6 m), a similar height and the southern slope, from the river side there is a cliff about 11 m high, slightly lower and the northern slope of the embankment. On this slope there are the ruins of three walls of a room about 6 m wide, cut into a hill. The width of the embankment is about 2-3 m, behind it there is a 3 m deep ditch on the inside, which is almost 14 m wide at the top. The site inside is slightly lower than the embankment and not quite regular – 30 x 35 x 27 m. The shortest (27 m) side of this irregular triangle faces the river side. With the growing threat of a Swedish attack, he was able to defend the manor buildings and crew. On the other hand, in the past there may have been a mound in this place, which was rebuilt and used for the defense of later times. However, these hypotheses can only be substantiated or refuted by archaeological excavations or the discovery of new historical sources.

Source Veliutė I. „16th – 17th c. Reflections of Fortification Development in Lithuania” 2020

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